In botany, a fruit tree is a self-sustaining structure typically formed inside a shrub or wood by the development of a seed-bearing organ called a fruit bearing tree. The fruit tree is a single-celled organism whose internal anatomy is highly complex. It has a single mouthful of leaves, no stems and no roots. The external appearance of a fruit tree is very distinct: it usually bears several small, blackish-greenish coloured fruit, called calyx which grows in the spring and summer and bears numerous fruits (on the outer surface of the calyx are scales) in the autumn.
The ovaries (which are present in both male and female plants) are present in all kinds of fruit, but in a very rudimentary form in fruits that have not yet developed into a fruit tree. The ovary, which contains one small dark coloured gonion, is present in the first year of development, when the plant first appears on the outside of the mother’s root system. The gonion enlarges and attains a size of roughly five millimetres, after which it continues to expand until it reaches about a diameter of one centimetre. The function of the ovary in the process of development of a fruit is so much related to that of the fertilised female reproductive cell that the ovary, through the action of hormones, stimulates the division of the female and male somatic cells.
After this has occurred, the two different sets of cells divide into two. The male cell (which is genetically male) derives energy from a sperm which is carried by the female somatic cells. The female cell (which is genetically female) manufactures the starch-based ovum, containing one or two procyanidin molecules. These molecules are released by the male cell, into the ovary, where they join together with the starch coat on the interior of the ovum. The process of attachment of the two cells to each other takes place in the space between the dermal papilla and the dermal layer of the haemorrhoid membrane. This attachment of the two cells is completed, in the case of female fruits, about two hours after the placenta has been expelled.
As soon as this process of attachment of the cells has taken place, the fruit begins to develop. As the fruit matures, the colour changes to a golden yellow colour. The shape of the fruit can vary greatly – it may be smooth, oval, cylindrical, semi-rectangular, round, square, tart or even heart-shaped. Some fruits, such as blackberries and strawberries, have their flowers and leaves fully developed while others may only have their flowering buds.
As the fruit matures, it is able to absorb the remaining water, which is retained by the ‘peridot’ of the fruit. This period is a waxy substance that is contained within the pericarp of the fruit. It provides the nutrients to the seed, which grows into the fruit. As the fruit matures, it releases the seeds, which are the ‘seed coat’ of the fruit. When these seeds are released, they float away in the water. The process of pollination takes place when the drifting seeds land on a flower’s foot, which will enable the pollen grains to germinate and start to grow into new flowers.
There are two types of seedless fruits – the marula and the manuka. The Marula fruit produces a fleshy fruit with a seedless interior. The interior contains numerous seeds. The Manuka fruit, on the other hand, produces a seedless fruit with a fleshy interior. The fruit interior contains large amounts of pollen.