A Brief Introduction to Fruits and Seeds
In botany, a fruit tree is a fruit-bearing structure in living plants which are developed from the male organ called the fruit when flowering. The fruit on a berry tree is called the berry. The fruit on a grapefruit tree is called the grapes or, if the fruit is of a dark color, the acerola.
In general, all fruits have four basic parts: the upper part or the fruit skin, the stem, the seeds or the pulp and the acERV, or ovary. The ovary produces the eggs, through a process called fertilization, at the time of ovulation. If fertilization occurs naturally, the embryo will remain within the follicle or sac for around twenty-four hours before the discharges the germinating substance known as sperm. Sperm, which swims freely through the twenty-four hour period of the fertilization, can eventually reach the main vein of the vas deferens where it deposits itself into the endometrial lining to be transported to the uterus.
On the other hand, in some species such as mangoes and guavas, the process of fertilization occurs so that the acERV or the egg cell of a female mango separates from the male’s sperm cell. Thereafter, the female ovaries or the acERVs are fertilized by the male sperm. This process happens so that the chances of conceiving a child are higher. In species such as bananas, guavas and pineapples where the acERV is not present, the male sperm fertilizes the female ovaries which then divide into eggs and release them into the fallopian tubes.
Since the primary function of fruit trees is to produce seeds, all fruit trees grow exclusively for seed production. In a few cases, fruit trees are grown for other purposes such as in filling baskets and potted plants. The small white flowers of a pear or an apple to add color to a plant and can also be used to decorate clothing and home accessories. It is a fact that some of the earliest recorded recipes for food, referred to as earthenware or teas, were prepared with the fruit as a main ingredient.
The fertilization of the acERV occurs at the mid-section of the flower and this is called the “carpel”. Carper is a Latin word that means “little pole” and the part of the stem nearest to the acERV is called the “carbel”. The ovaries are at the centre of a long, thin stalk called a “stalk”. This stalk grows between the ovaries and along the carpel.
The ovary just before the seed is completed in the form of an ovum (a fruit) contains one or two small “spores” which are responsible for germination of the next generation. The ovaries in ripe fruits will open up and the spores can be released. In some species of wildgermander, especially those that produce seedless fruits, the spores of mature fruit are released. These spores are taken by birds, which in turn distribute them on seeds that they feed on.