A ball is simply a round object generally made from a hard or soft material and shaped in a variety of ways. It’s most commonly used in table tennis, whereby the action of the game often follows that of the ball itself as it’s gently being hit, hurled or thrown by competitors. Balls are also used for simpler tasks, like juggling or catch. The game of ball volleyball evolved from this use, and the first known game using a ball date back to 1860. The origins of baseball, on the other hand, can be traced to the sport of throw throwing a ball back and forth between two players. While these games followed the same basic rules, their variations have kept the ball moving and changing in many ways over the years.
Ball bearings are necessary because they keep the balls traveling in various directions at different speeds. A roller or a cord, for example, can be wound around a shaft and is very useful because it can be bent into many shapes, allowing for ball bearings to be designed with the sole purpose of fitting into a particular shape. The material of choice for ball bearings, however, is usually steel. High-quality steel can be incredibly durable and resilient against wear and tear, but due to its weight, ball bearings have to be placed in an extremely lightweight form, with the result that most steel balls are fairly shapeless.
The amount of force necessary to propel a ball (or any other type of particle through the air) can be measured in kilos per square centimeter [KSP cm/s] and refers to the power delivered by impulses of a particular voltage. In layman’s terms, it means the amount of thrust a ball exerts against the horizontal or vertical axis of an electric motor or aircraft, where one end of the shaft imparts forward thrust to the aircraft while the other end deflects the thrust away. For instance, if we look at a jet fighter plane, the engine that drives the stabilizer can generate tremendous amounts of thrust against the horizontal plane, while the elevator and rudder generate thrust in the vertical direction. In simple terms, the thrust is the power that pushes an object towards a particular direction.
To understand ball bearings, it helps to have an understanding of their mechanism. When two balls are placed side by side on a platform, they contact each other at the point of contact. If these balls have similar center of gravity, then the total force of attraction between the balls will be zero. The force of repulsion, on the other hand, would cause the balls to repel each other. The net force, which combines the gravitational constant and the repulsive force of the balls, results in a net force that adds up to the weight balance of the platform. Due to this equilibrium, the performance of such an aircraft is well-balanced.
Now let’s take a look at the mechanics of ball bearings. In a perfectly balanced aircraft, the force and kinetic energy are evenly distributed among the parts, and no part gains a higher advantage than the other. This means that no single part contributes to the airframe, and that all parts work in harmony with one another. In case the aircraft generates more energy than it needs, some of it may go to the fuel, but the rest should be directed towards providing lift to counteract the lower momentum of the heavier, faster moving air. For this reason, high levels of thrust are needed to counter the effects of aerodynamic drag, resulting in a combination of thrust and tilt for maintaining a constant forward angle of attack.
A high degree of stiffness is required for good performance, and this is achieved by the presence of steel balls bearing layers. In fact, the presence of extra steel balls can reduce the overall weight of an aircraft by a small percentage. To achieve this, a number of bearing designs are possible, depending on the requirements. A number of high-class aircraft bearing manufacturers offer a complete range of high-performance steel ball bearings, suitable for both counter-rotating and non-counter-rotating designs, and suitable for both symmetric and mixed-lift operation.